Torres Vedras, Battle of

   A hilly area near the village of Torres Vedras, north of Lisbon, is the site where Portuguese and English forces of the Duke of Wellington withstood repeated French attacks under Andre Masséna from 9 October to 14 November 1810. Blocking the way to Lisbon, Wellington's defensive preparations were successful, based as they were on successful British and Portuguese liaison and shared fighting spirit. After his failure before the Lines of Torres Vedras and British and Portuguese fortified works, Masséna hesitated and sent to Napoleon for instructions.
   The French commander, however, was greatly weakened due to food shortages and to the fact that the supply lines with Spain were now cut. Therefore, before Napoleon could answer his messages, Mas-séna was forced to begin his withdrawal to Spain. Masséna withdrew from Portugal in April 1811 and, with the abandonment of a French garrison at Almeida on the frontier, France's occupation of Portugal was at an end. The remainder of the Peninsular Wars then moved to Spain.

Historical dictionary of Portugal 3rd ed.. . 2014.

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